Who is the Biblical Adulterous Woman?

We will employ the following hermeneutical tools in this article:

1.) The Rule of First mention (the first mention of any word     establishes the precedent for its use in Scripture)

2.)  The Rule of Complete mention

3.)  Covenant language i.e. “keep my commandments”

4.)  His perfect will for creation


6.)  Ancient Hebrew pictograph

7.)  Simple gematria 

The four levels of interpretation are called: Pashat, Remez, D’rash & Sud. The first letter of each word P-R-D-S is taken, and vowels are added for pronunciation, giving the word PARDES (meaning “garden” or “orchard”). Each layer is deeper and more intense than the last, like the layers of an onion.  (http://www.yashanet.com)

Acts 15:13 – 17:  “And after they had become silent, James answered, saying, ‘Men and brethren, listen to me:  Simon has declared how God at the first visited the Gentiles to take out of them a people for His name.  And with this the words of the prophets agree, just as it is written (Hosea 3:5 and Amos 9:12):  After this I will return and will rebuild the tabernacle of David, which has fallen down; I will rebuild its ruins, and I will set it up; So that the rest of mankind may seek the LORD, even all the Gentiles who are called by My name, says the LORD who does all these things.’”

The phrase “God at the first” means “reshit.”  This phrase tells us that “in the beginning, the reshit,” YaHaVah invited the goyim, the gentile people, to enter into a covenant relationship with Him. Over two millennia later He has succeeded.

Ex. 12:38:  “A mixed multitude went up with them (Israel) also, and flocks and herds—a great deal of livestock.”  The mixed multitude was a melding of people with a single purpose.  We can determine what the purpose was by examining the Hebrew words.

The Hebrew word for mixed is Ereb, עֵרֶב, which means a mixture of people, in fact it can mean strangers or aliens as well. In its ancient form Ereb would read:  “To see from the beginning His family.”  The numerical value is 272; 2 + 7 + 2 = 11.

Ereb comes from the root word עָרַב.  In the Hithpael verb stem it means to exchange pledges or to have fellowship with and share.  The mixed multitude was interwoven, one with another.  

I was always told that the mixed multitude was simply rif-raf.  They were forced to live outside the camp of Israel where the latrines were located as well as those people that had contracted leprosy.  This cannot be the case as there is no Scriptural foundation for such a claim.  Based on the above definition, it seems to me this was a group of people that chose to walk in a covenant relationship with The Father.  With that in mind, let’s widen the scope of our understanding with regard to the identity of the “mixed multitude.”

Nowhere in Scripture does it say that the Father separated Israel out of the “mixed multitude.”  It seems logical to me that this great amount of people simply merged together since that is the very definition of Ereb.  It’s entirely possible then, that when the following Scripture narrative tells us He was speaking to Israel, He was also speaking to those that had merged with them, referred to in Scripture as “the people.”

Ex. 19:4: “You have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and how I bore you on eagles’ wings and brought you to Myself.”  Did the goyim, the gentiles, get left behind or did they also walk through the parting waters of the Reed Sea, the Sea of Suf?

Ex. 19:5 – 6:  “Now therefore, if you will indeed obey My voice and keep My covenant, then you shall be a special treasure to Me above all people; for all the earth is Mine.  And you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.’ These are the words which you shall speak to the children of Israel.”  ** I’m suggesting to you that the “you” he is speaking to is the entire “mixed multitude.”

Ex. 19:7 – 8:  “So Moses came and called for the elders of the people, and laid before them all these words which the LORD commanded him. Then all the people answered together and said, ‘All that the LORD has spoken we will do.’ So Moses brought back the words of the people to the LORD.”  **The first vow made by all the people, the “mixed multitude.”

Ex. 19:9:  “And the LORD said to Moses, ‘Behold, I come to you in the thick cloud that the people may hear when I speak with you, and believe you forever.’ So Moses told the words of the people to the LORD.” 

The Hebrew word for people is עַם and is defined thus; those united, connected or related.  Consider these “people” are those that have gathered together with a united purpose, namely, the worship of YaHaVah.

The betrothal invitation was given to the “mixed multitude” and the “mixed multitude” accepted.  The betrothed bride consists of the “mixed multitude.”

The rules of the kingdom are the same for the native born and the nations.  Recall The Fathers pattern is covenant first then redemption.  We see this made very clear in Ex. 12:42 – 49 when the ordinance of the Pesach is given before Israel is brought out of Egypt.  

“It is a night of solemn observance to the LORD for bringing them out of the land of Egypt. This is that night of the LORD, a solemn observance for all the children of Israel throughout their generations. And the LORD said to Moses and Aaron, ‘this is the ordinance of the Passover: No foreigner shall eat it. But every man’s servant who is bought for money, when you have circumcised him, then he may eat it.  A sojourner and a hired servant shall not eat it.

In one house it shall be eaten; you shall not carry any of the flesh outside the house, nor shall you break one of its bones. All the congregation of Israel shall keep it. And when a stranger dwells with you and wants to keep the Passover to the LORD, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it; and he shall be as a native of the land. For no uncircumcised person shall eat it. One law shall be for the native-born and for the stranger who dwells among you.”  **This is the “grafting” in process.

Even before there was a “mixed multitude,” YaHaVah would make provision for them to enter into a covenant relationship with Him.  Circumcision was a “sign” between the people and their covenant faith.  In our day and hour, there is the circumcision of the heart.


Ge. 17:10 – 13:  “This is My covenant which you shall keep, between Me and you and your descendants after you: Every male child among you shall be circumcised; and you shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskins, and it shall be a sign of the covenant between Me and you. He who is eight days old among you shall be circumcised, every male child in your generations, he who is born in your house or bought with money from any foreigner who is not your descendant. He who is born in your house and he who is bought with your money must be circumcised, and My covenant shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covenant.”

Col. 2:11:  “In Him you were also circumcised with the circumcision made without hands, by putting off the body of the sins of the flesh, by the circumcision of Messiah.”

Ex. 24:3 – 7:  “So Moses came and told the people all the words of the LORD and all the judgments. And all the people answered with one voice and said, “All the words which the LORD has said we will do.”  (The people make the second vow, parentheses mine) And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD. And he rose early in the morning, and built an altar at the foot of the mountain, and twelve pillars according to the twelve tribes of Israel. Then he sent young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt offerings and sacrificed peace offerings of oxen to the LORD. And Moses took half the blood and put it in basins, and half the blood he sprinkled on the altar. Then he took the Book of the Covenant and read in the hearing of the people. And they said, ‘All that the LORD has said we will do, and be obedient.’” (The people make the third vow.)

And Moses took the blood ( אֶת־הַדָּם) sprinkled it on the people, and said, “This is the blood of the covenant which the LORD has made with you according to all these words.”

The strangers and foreigners that left Egypt with Israel were grafted into Israel and together they became “the people,” the betrothed bride! The sprinkled blood was for the benefit of all the people.  It would be “the people” then that would take part in the golden calf.  

Ex. 32:1 – 3:  “Now when the people saw that Moses delayed coming down from the mountain, the people gathered together to Aaron, and said to him, ‘Come, make us gods that shall go before us; for as for this Moses, the man who brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we do not know what has become of him.’

And Aaron said to them, ‘Break off the golden earrings which are in the ears of your wives, your sons, and your daughters, and bring them to me.’ So all the people broke off the golden earrings which were in their ears, and brought them to Aaron.”

It was “the people” who broke their marriage betrothal.  In Verse 4 they said ‘And he received the gold from their hand, and he fashioned it with an engraving tool, and made a molded calf.’ Then they said, ‘This is your god, O Israel that brought you out of the land of Egypt!’”  

What happens when you turn your back on YaHaVah and decide to worship a carved god?  Spiritual adultery.  

The juxtaposition of the betrothed bride is the adulterous woman.  It was the “mixed multitude” that collectively made THREE vows.  Why are there three, wasn’t one sufficient?  Recall the golden calf incident occurred in Ex. 32 which falls within the Book of the Law.  These three vows will act as a witness against those who participated in the golden calf incident.

Dt. 19:15: “One witness shall not rise against a man concerning any iniquity or any sin that he commits; by the mouth of two or three witnesses the matter shall be established.”  

By breaking their marriage vows, the “mixed multitude” sealed not only their own fate but also the fate of their descendants.  

Dt. 7: 9 – 10: “Therefore know that the LORD your God, He is God, the faithful God who keeps covenant and mercy for a thousand generations with those who love Him and keep His commandments; and He repays those who hate Him to their face, to destroy them. He will not be slack with him who hates Him; He will repay him to his face.”

Scripture records many rebellious occurrences of adulterous behavior.  Centuries have now lapsed when we read the account of King Josiah.  2 Kings. 22:1 – 4:  “Josiah was eight years old when he became king, and he reigned thirty-one years in Jerusalem (appx 640 BCE). His mother’s name was Jedidah the daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath.

And he did what was right in the sight of the LORD, and walked in all the ways of his father David; he did not turn aside to the right hand or to the left. Now it came to pass, in the eighteenth year of King Josiah, that the king sent Shaphan the scribe, the son of Azaliah, the son of Meshullam, to the house of the LORD, saying:  Go up to Hilkiah the high priest, that he may count the money which has been brought into the house of the LORD, which the doorkeepers have gathered from the people.”

V 8:  “Then Hilkiah the high priest said to Shaphan the scribe, ‘I have found the Book of the Law in the house of the LORD.’ And Hilkiah gave the book to Shaphan, and he read it.”

V 10 – 11:  “Then Shaphan the scribe showed the king, saying, “Hilkiah the priest has given me a book.” And Shaphan read it before the king. Now it happened, when the king heard the words of the Book of the Law, that he tore his clothes.”

V 13: “Go, inquire of the LORD for me, for the people and for all Judah, concerning the words of this book that has been found; for great is the wrath of the LORD that is aroused against us, because our fathers have not obeyed the words of this book, to do according to all that is written concerning us.”

King Josiah now understands why they are experiencing Yahs’ wrath.  Their instruction book has been packed away somewhere within the Temple precinct’s.  It certainly was not being used for its intended purpose.

2 Kings 23:1 – 5:  “Now the king sent them to gather all the elders of Judah and Jerusalem to him. The king went up to the house of the LORD with all the men of Judah, and with him all the inhabitants of Jerusalem—the priests and the prophets and all the people, both small and great. And he read in their hearing all the words of the Book of the Covenant which had been found in the house of the LORD. Then the king stood by a pillar and made a covenant                      ( אֶֽת־הַבְּרִית  ) before the LORD, to follow the LORD and to keep His commandments and His testimonies (אֶת־עֵדְוֺתָיו  )and His statutes (אֶת־חֻקֹּתָיו  ) with all his heart and all his soul, to perform the words (ֶאת־דִּבְרֵי  ) of this covenant that were written in this book. And all the people took a stand for the covenant.

That’s right, now the Book of the Covenant has been located!

And the king commanded Hilkiah the high priest, the priests of the second order, and the doorkeepers, to bring out of the temple of the LORD all the articles that were made for Baal, for Asherah, and for all the host of heaven; and he burned them outside Jerusalem in the fields of Kidron, and carried their ashes to Bethel. Then he removed the idolatrous priests ( אֶת־הַכְּמָרִים ) whom the kings of Judah had ordained to burn incense on the high places in the cities of Judah and in the places all around Jerusalem, and those (אֶת־הַֽמְקַטְּרִים ) who burned incense to Baal, to the sun, to the moon, to the constellations, and to all the host of heaven.

By reading both books King Josiah was able to cleanse the land and rule according to the Rules of the Kingdom.

Col. 2:13 – 14 tells us something interesting:  “And you, being dead in your trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh, He has made alive together with Him, having forgiven you all trespasses, having wiped out the handwriting of requirements that was against us, which was contrary to us. And He has taken it out of the way, having nailed it to the cross.”

This is the Apostle Pauls’ letter to Colossae.  How is it possible for them to have handwritten requirements against them?  Aren’t we several centuries down the road from the golden calf incident and the three vows made by the “mixed multitude?”

This is entirely possible because, from the reshit, the beginning, the Rules of the Kingdom were meant to be universal, i.e. for all mankind. In our day and hour, centuries later, the three acceptance vows made by the “mixed multitude” are still in effect.  We are bound by their vows just as if we were standing there with them!

In Dt. 29:9 – 14: “Therefore keep the words of this covenant, and do them, that you may prosper in all that you do. All of you stand today before the LORD your God: your leaders and your tribes and your elders and your officers, all the men of Israel, your little ones and your wives—also the stranger who is in your camp, from the one who cuts your wood to the one who draws your water—that you may enter into covenant with the LORD your God, and into His oath, which the LORD your God makes with you today, that He may establish you today as a people for Himself, and that He may be God to you, just as He has spoken to you, and just as He has sworn to your fathers, to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.  I make this covenant and this oath, not with you alone, but with him who stands here with us today before the LORD our God, as well as with him who is not here with us today.

The first exodus consisted of a “mixed multitude.” They were the native born Israelite and the goyim (gentiles), who became the betrothed bride.  It was after the golden calf incident they became the adulterous woman.  The second exodus will likewise consist of the same people groups. 

Yeshua is returning for a second time to collect His “betrothed bride,” not the adulterous woman.

In conclusion, I will ask you the question I asked at the beginning of this article; “Who is the Biblical Adulterous woman?”

The answer:

Everyone!  Everyone that is not in a covenant relationship with YaHaVah.